Square Peg in a Round Hole

Unveiling Rural Student Challenges in Trinidad and Tobago through Currere


  • Alicia Francisca Noreiga-Mundaroy University of New Brunswick


rural student challenges, Trinidad and Tobago secondary schools, currere process


The twin-island state of Trinidad and Tobago supports systems that continue to disadvantage its rural students.  This paper entwines narrative and theoretical philosophies to situate my rural experience into a broader field of rural discourse while embracing the currere process to understand my biographical and professional linkages. I employ the currere process to analyze my past and present and create a vision of whom I hope to become, thus, assessing my profound purpose. I unleash underlying rural assumptions and influences that have covertly and overtly influenced my academic and professional career. Through regressive, progressive, analytical, and synthetical approaches, I answer the question, “How does rurality appear as a theme in my academic and professional life?”


Brown, L. I. & Conrad, D. A. (2007). School leadership in Trinidad and Tobago: The challenge of context. Comparative Education Review, 51(2), 181-201.
Central Statistical Office (2020). Trinidad & Tobago 2011 Housing and Population Census. Government of Trinidad and Tobago. Retrieved from https://cso.gov.tt/census/2011-census-data/.
De Lisle, J., Seecharan, H., & Aydike, A., T. (2010). Is the Trinidad and Tobago Education System Structured to Facilitate Optimum Human Capital Development? New Findings on the Relationship Between Education Structures and Outcomes from National and International Assessments. Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economics Studies (SALISE) Conference.
De Lisle, J., Smith, P., Keller, C., & Julesa, V. (2012). Differential outcomes in high-stakes eleven plus testing: The role of gender, geography, and assessment design in Trinidad and Tobago. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 19(1), 45-64.
Donaldson, J. S. (1060). The Concordat of 1960: Assurances for the Preservation and Character of Denominational Schools. Retrieved from https://www.moe.gov.tt/the-concordat-of-1960-2/
Freire, P. (2002). Pedagogy of the Oppressed (50th anniversary ed.). Lexington Ave, NY: The Continuum International Publishing Group.
hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to Transgress – Education as the practice of Freedom. Third Avenue, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.
Pinar, W. (1994). Autobiography, politics and sexuality: Essays in curriculum theory 1972-1992. New York, NY: Peter Lang
Perreault, S. (2019). Police-reported crime in rural and urban areas in the Canadian provinces, 2017. The Canadian Center of Justice Statistics, 1, 3–37.
Prtlarz, A., & Bowden, M. (2019). “Crime-talk”, security and fear in the countryside” A preliminary study of a rural Irish town in its hinterland. International Journal of Rural Criminology, 4(2), 138–172.
Smith, K., & Bryne, R. (2018). Reimagining rural crime in England: A historical perspective. International Journal of Rural Criminology, 4(1), 66–85.
United Nations Children’s Fund (2017). Situation Analysis of Children in Trinidad and Tobago. Christ Church, Barbados: UNICEF Office for Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean. https://www.unicef.org/easterncaribbean/ECA_SitAN_Trinidad_2018_WEB(1).pdf
Paul, A (2018, October 6) North Coast residents forgotten. Trinidad and Tobago Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.guardian.co.tt/news/north-coast-residents-forgotten-6.2.685068.d0d0c06cca
Rajack-Talley, T. A. (2016). Rural Employment and Rural Development in the Caribbean. International Labour Organization.